This experience has paved the way for a reactionary nationalism designed to sustain China as a ruthless global competitor within the clearly lopsided international hierarchy. However, it has also shaped a different vision in Chinese leaders - expressed in rhetoric about the Belt and Road Initiative, support for development as a human right, criticism of neoliberal conditionality for multilateral aid, promotion of global public goods and proposals to democratize world institutions – in which the hierarchy could be flattened through international cooperation for the benefit of global development and a just global climate transition. As in the 1980s, which of these contrasting visions will triumph is something that is not written,
“ Il Nostro Futuro si scrive in Cina” [our future is written in China], says the Italian subtitle of the book Red Mirror, about the reality of contemporary China. Smart Whatsapp Mobile Number List applications... draw a highly commented but still little known scenario. Red Mirror: what future is written in China? Interview with Simone Pierini In 1938, on the eve of World War II, the United States spent as a whole about 0.075% of its GDP on scientific research, a minimal amount.
In 1944, the federal government and the states increased that percentage to almost 0.5%, a sevenfold increase that was used to develop radar systems, penicillin, and the atomic bomb. Over the next two decades, federal funding for research and development increased 20-fold, creating the public foundation for future private innovations in the areas of modern pharmaceuticals, microelectronics, satellites, the Internet, and much more. . However, in the early 1980s, a slow decline began: public spending on research and development fell to 1.2% of gdp; in 2017 it had been reduced to 0.6%. Today, if we use the percentage of gdp devoted to research as a base, nine countries outnumber the us .